近东开辟史诗(一)

巴比伦创世神话,Enuma Elis(也作Enuma Elish),是巴比伦人赞美主神马尔杜克的神话史诗,用阿卡德语书写(使用楔形文字拼写的古代语言之一)。它描述了开天辟地,诸神之战,创造人类,以及建造巴比伦圣所等宏大场面。

此书唯一中文版由饶宗颐先生于上世纪七十年代用文言文译出,名为《近东开辟史诗》1 ,其序言中提到:

本史诗是西亚关于天地人类由来的神话宝典,是世界最早史诗之一。希伯来圣经中的《创世纪》即从此衍生而出。在中国的翻译界,尚未有人把这史诗全文介绍过。这是首次译出的尝试。

史诗本无名字,“Enuma Elis”是卷首两字,意思是“When on high”,中文译为“天之高兮” 。饶宗颐先生当时在法国学习西亚语文,翻译此诗的时候又以James B. Pritchard 1963年之英译本为依据2。我最近在图书馆找到了Pritchard所编The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures,此诗有节录。

楔形文字刻印在泥板上,盖因古人无纸,泥板烘干之后在当地干燥的气候下便于保存。数千年来,西亚地区文明更迭,兵爨丛生,昔日繁华早已不在,巴比伦亚述等古老文明亦被人类彻底遗忘。而幸运的是,这些泥板静静地躺在地下,躲过了战乱浩劫,直到数千年后,19-20世纪考古学蓬勃展开,才等来了重见天日的一刻,从此世人知道了人类文明曙光时期那一个个强盛显赫的城邦、帝国。这部史诗正是19世纪考古发现的重要成果之一。它刻在七块泥板上,因此有时又称作The Seven Tablets of Creation。而翻译的作品,无论英文还是中文,都分为“七卷”。

本文先介绍第一卷3

第一卷——天之高兮

本卷作为全诗开篇,记载鸿蒙之中诸神诞生,第一代神王、众神之父潝虚(Apsu)因不满神子们喧闹让他不能休息,计划将其全部灭绝,不料消息走漏,诸神中独具甚深智慧的阏亚(Ea),施法术催眠并杀死潝虚,又在潝虚尸体之上诞下众神之王马尔杜克(巴比伦主神,守护者,其地位在一切神之上)。然而潝虚之死激怒了其妻“天后”彻墨,彻墨于狂怒中召集麾下众军,并以神力创造毒虺、巨龙、狮人等大批魔物,准备复仇。全篇在彻墨秣马厉兵中结束。

饶宗颐先生将这一卷分为混沌,神降,初扰,阏亚解纷,潝虚显灵,再扰,彻墨备战七个部分。译本风格古朴,十分契合史诗意境。

混沌

这一节只有六句话,

When on high the heaven had not been named,

Firm ground below had not been called by name,

Naught but primordial Apsu, their begetter,

(And) Mummu Tiamat, she who bore them all,

Their waters commingling as a single body,

No reed but had been matted, no marsh land had appeared.

天之高兮,既未有名

厚地之庳兮,亦未赋之以名

始有潝虚,是其所出

漠母彻墨,皆由孳生

无纬萧以结庐,无沼泽之可睹

讲述混沌初开,潝虚与彻墨诞生,他们是后来众神的先祖。

文中第四句提到的“漠母”与“彻墨”并非一人,后文有提及,漠母实为潝虚的“vizier”(相当于侍从一类),且为男性(文中用“he“),但英文这里是“she”,应该仅指彻墨,本句有些费解。

神降

这一节叙述“神谱”,我作了一个简图,

论本领,诸神真可谓是“长江后浪推前浪,新神都比旧神强”,先有“安萨与基撒,凌驾于众人”,接着“安拏继嗣,堪匹其父母”,乃至努知穆(即阏亚)诞生,更成为“众父之主”,文曰:

Anu begot in his image Nudimmud.

This Nudimmud was of his fathers the master;

Of broad wisdom, understanding, mighty in strength,

Mightier by far than his grandfather, Anshar.

He had no rival among the gods, his brothers.

及乎努知穆之生,一如安拏之躯。

彼更肖其尊亲,将为众父之主。

既广识而濬哲,复多力而孔武。

其强圉终迈厥祖安撒兮,

于昆季之众神中,诚为无敌者也!

初扰

诸神出世之后整日喧哗,潝虚不胜其烦,深觉"彼等之行诚为可憎,其容诚为可厌",于是携漠母到彻墨面前“告状”。

Apsu, opening his mouth,

Said unto radiant Tiamat:

“Their ways are truly abominable unto me.

By day I find no relief, nor repose by night.

I will destroy, I will wreck their ways,

That quite may be restored. Let us have rest!”

潝虚乃张其口,

大声以语彻墨:

彼辈诚使余不胜其扰,

昼夜不宁。

余誓将歼之,杜绝其方。

庶几安静,俾余小休。“

面对潝虚如此任性,一言不合就要“断子绝孙”,彻墨大怒,“肆意咆哮,责其欺凌”,曰:

“What? Should we destroy that which we have built?

Their ways indeed are most troublesome, but let us attend kindly!”

胡为乎!余殆将毁弃我等之所建者?

彼固烦渎,惟余等当亲切留意焉。

然而,此时漠母出场,怂恿潝虚,“必绝此叛逆之路”,“潝虚闻之,面遽作色。”

此时潝虚心中已有计较。

阏亚解纷

世上没有不透风的墙,诸天神王亦不例外。潝虚之毒计很快被诸神知晓,虽个个震愕,却沉默无言。于是大智大慧之阏亚挺身而出,“想出一可施行之策”。

文中赞阏亚智慧:

Superior in wisdom, accomplished and resourceful

Ea, the all-wise, saw through their scheme.

独无所不知而睿智之阏亚,洞悉其情,

因其智力凌驾一切为不可及也。

接下来的过程只有三言两语。阏亚以咒语催眠乃祖,“除其带,裂其冠”(卸载了潝虚神王的标志),然后“加桎梏于潝虚而弑之”,同时将漠母擒拿,“复缚漠母而置诸枷锁之后”。

潝虚显灵

大功告成之后,阏亚占据了潝虚躯壳,建一宫,名“潝虚宫”,作为“宿命之宫,运会之馆”。

接着众神之王马尔杜克诞生了。

In the heart of holy Apsu was Marduk created.

He who begot him was Ea, his father;

She who bore him was Damkina, his mother.

在神灵潝虚之心中,马独克生焉。

生之者谁?是为阏亚,实其父也。

育之者谁?是为萏洁娜,实其母也。

马尔杜克自出生之日,就完美无暇,“奥乎莫可窥测,渊乎难以揣度”。四眼四耳,“烛照万物”,口中有火焰喷射,“魁梧无匹,极度高峻。” 阏亚惊叹:

“My son, the Sun! Sun of the heavens!”

“吾儿,太阳也,诸天之太阳也!“

卢浮宫藏马尔杜克浮雕

卢浮宫藏马尔杜克浮雕

再扰

这群“不肖子孙”干掉了他们的老祖宗之后,越发肆意妄行,安拏制造大风,“扶摇惊飙”,连彻墨都被骚扰。于是群神中心怀不满者来找“祖母“彻墨:

To Tiamat, their mother, said:

“When they slew Apsu, your consort,

You did not aid him but remained still.

When he created the dread fourfold wind,

Your vitals were diluted and so we can have no rest.

Let Apsu, your consort, be in your mind

And Mummu, who has been vanquished! You are left alone!

. . . you pace about distraught,

. . . without cease. You do not love us!

. . . our eyes are pinched,

. . . without cease. Let us have rest!

. . . to battle. Avenge them!

. . . and render them as the wind!”

语其母彻墨曰

“当彼等弑杀汝夫君潝虚

汝未尝拯救之,但静观其变已

彼遂造此可怖之四方风

以削减汝之活力,而吾等亦难以获得休息

让汝夫潝虚(之精神)存于汝之心中

。。。(使)汝之步伐,精神涣散

。。。汝不爱吾等,汝亦将无宁日

。。。吾等目光凝注

。。。无有休止,让吾等稍息!

。。。(共)赴战阵,汝其复仇乎!

。。。今所用以报复彼等者,有如此风!”

这段话晓之以理,动之以情,说的极好。

彻墨备战

彻墨闻之大喜,开始调兵遣将。先令母许芭(Mother Huber)为总指挥(she who fashions all things),然后制造了毒虺(虺即大蛇)、蛟龙、狮身人、巨狮、疯犬、蝎人、狮妖、飞龙、半人马等魔怪。彻墨又立一王,名为金固(Kinggu),作为主帅,并赐之“天命之铭”(the Tablet of Destinies),挂在胸前,象征其无上地位。

第一卷最后以彻墨的殷殷嘱咐结尾:

“Your word shall make the first subside,

Shall humble the Power-Weapon, so potent in its sweep!”

“汝言将致首次之平靖,

汝必慎用权力,于扫荡之功为首要!“

于是战争一触即发。

未完待续。

  1. “近东(Near East)”,19世纪的政治术语,现在除了历史研究,很少见到这种说法了,基本相当于今天的“中东地区”。历史上近东主要指西起埃及东到伊朗的广大地区,包括今天的巴勒斯坦,土耳其,亚美尼亚,伊拉克等地,是人类文明最早的发源地。
  2. https://zh.m.wikipedia.org/zh-hans/埃努瑪·埃利什
  3. 英文引用自 http://www.crivoice.org/enumaelish.html

About Philip Wang

Striving for writing.
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